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Newbie's Guide To Bikes


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One of the best ways to stay savvy with the latest class 2 bikes is by getting bike magazines and reading them. Personally, I'd recommend UK's Fastbikes, available at Kino and the Thambi Magazine shop at Holland V.

 

Added Virago 250.

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Some Informative Facts for CARB Bike Vs EFI Bike

 

Carburetors or EFI?

 

Discussion has been circulating at that local hang-out between car enthusiasts over what type of fuel delivery is better. I am here to offer my opinion along with facts. I will admit that I am a little bias toward EFI, but will offer my 2.5 years of training and 5 years of experience concerning this matter.

 

Carburetors have been around for over a century. This is a device that, simply put, delivers the amount of fuel an engine needs in relation to the amount of air that is pushed through it by atmospheric pressure. Carburetors work on a pressure-drop principle in which I will not go into great detail other than when tuned properly for atmospheric and weather conditions, carburetors work very well.

 

There are many types of Electronic Fuel Injection on the market today. I will touch base on 3 major types known as: Throttle Body Injection, Port Fuel Injection, and Direct Fuel Injection. All of these systems are controlled by very similar computer systems and related sensors.

 

Throttle Body Injection is the most simple type of EFI and the closest to carburetion in operation. Fuel is injected above the throttle blades by one or more fuel injector nozzles. Both fuel and air are carried throughout the entire intake tract.

 

Port Fuel Injection is the most widely utilized form of injection today. Fuel is injected at each intake port, usually at the cylinder head and intake manifold. Only air travels through the intake tract until it reaches the point in which fuel is injected. This method allows a wide variety of intake system designs to be explored and utilized depending on application, thus making super- and turbo-charging extremely feasible.

 

Direct Fuel Injection is a new technology. This system utilizes injectors similar to diesel engines in which fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. Obviously cost is high due the custom cylinder head configuration and high-temp injector required. Not much is known about this system relating to performance usage be the foundation has been laid for previously untold amounts of attainable power potential.

 

CARBS vs. EFI

 

The real question: Which is better? Well, this depends on a lot of factors. For one, what do you do with, and how do you drive your car? Obviously, if you race a vehicle professionally in which rules are involved that restrict the type of fuel delivery that can be used, you have little choice.

 

The age old question has always been disputed: Which makes more power? Well, this too is a good question. Carb enthusiasts argue that carbs make more power over port injection because the fuel helps "cool" the intake manifold. If this were true, what about Throttle Body Injection? I have seen little evidence to prove that carbs out-perform port efi on identical engines and vice-versa in controlled conditions.

 

Again, your choice depends on what you plan to do with your vehicle. In my opinion, carbs work great in ideal weather conditions and areas of the country which see little climate changes. Unfortunately, there are rarely 'ideal' conditions present. This leaves you to change jets and tune your carburetor to the changing weather conditions as the day goes on. On the other hand, EFI systems automatically compensate for changing conditions.

 

What about cost? Well, here again, it depends on what you want to do with your vehicle. If you don't mind drivability problems when the engine is cold or the humidity is high then carbs are for you. Simply put, no carburetor can do what a feedback efi system can do compared by cost. I have never seen a carb that you didn't have to tune to offset changing conditions. These changes require carb disassembly in most cases. EFI can compensate for most any change in weather conditions. Those that cannot be automatically compensated for by the ECM can be easily reprogrammed by PC or Laptop computer in just minutes without getting your hands dirty.

 

But carbs only cost $200 compared to $1000 for EFI system and programming hardware/software. Where are the savings? Well, $200 is just the initial cost of the average carb, new. Later, jet kits, gaskets, various diaphrams, and springs are required to maintain and tune carbs. Most efi systems have a highway mode operation in which fuel can be saved during periods of cruising that don't effect any other driving period. Personally, I have experienced a 4+mpg gain in fuel mileage utilizing such "built-in" features of GM EFI systems. Cost savings are self-explanitory, not to mention the time you save by simply sitting at a computer to tune your car instead of disassembling a carb.

What kind of features does EFI offer over carbs? Well, simply put: a carburetor just sits there. A typical GM EFI computer system can be programmed in the following areas:

 

 

Fuel Delivery based on MAP (Manifold Pressure), TP (Throttle Position), RPM, ECT (coolant temp)

 

 

Spark Advance based on MAP, TP, RPM, ECT

 

 

TCC Lockup characteristics based on TP, VSS (Vehicle Speed)

 

 

Highway Mode Air/Fuel Ratio based on MAP, TP, VSS, Time

 

 

Open Loop A/F Ratio and Power Enrichment Changes

 

 

Closed Loop parameters

 

 

Manifold Air Temp influence on timing and A/F ratio

 

 

Idle Speed based on ECT

 

 

Transmission Shift firmness and Shift Points (electronic automatics)

 

 

Cooling Fan(s) Operation besed on ECT, VSS

 

 

Trouble Code Parameters

 

and Much, Much More....

 

 

 

The Facts:

 

Carbs EFI

 

Winter Drivability: Poor Excellent

 

Summer Drivebility: Excellent Excellent

 

Skill Level Required: Average Advanced

 

Long-term cost: High Manageable

 

Performance: Good Better

 

Turbo-compatible: Poor Excellent

 

Supercharger-compatible: Depends Excellent

 

N2O-compatible: Good Good

 

Emissions Friendly: Poor Excellent

 

"Wow" Factor: Fair Excellent

 

Reliability: Good Excellent

 

Fuel Distribution: Fair Excellent (Port and Direct)

 

Intake Configurations: Limited Unlimited (Port and Direct)

 

Pros: 6 12

 

Cons: 8 2

åƒé‡‘难买早知é“.......

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Not exactly. An EFI system is not much more expensive to service than a carb. The main difference is the simplicity between the two; I know how to open up a carb and clean it, put it together, do a rough tune and having working. An EFI system is more complicated...but not by much in single cylinder bikes like the Wave. The difference in maintainence costs whenever you do your clearances (say every 1/2 year) is often not more than ten dollars for these bikes.

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Dummies for Sprocket and Chain

 

For most current motorcycles, the power from the engine and transmission is delivered to the rear wheel via a drive chain (majority), driveshafts or belts.

 

For users of chains and sprockets, the tooth count on the front and rear sprockets create a specific final drive ratio.

 

This ratio can easily be altered by changing the sprockets with replacements that have a different tooth count.

 

Why might you want to do this?

 

Because it allows you to trade some effective top-end HP for added effective low-end torque, to give you faster acceleration (at the sacrifice of absolute top-end speed).

 

It also permits you to calculate a specific RPM you want the engine to be turning at your preferred cruising speed. For example, if your motorcycle currently runs 5200 RPM at 100 km/h, by altering the tooth counts, you could push that RPM number up (to put it further into the powerband for better roll-on performance) or down (to reduce vibration and improve fuel mileage/tank range if you do lots of highway driving).

åƒé‡‘难买早知é“.......

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Type of Chain

 

Just as modern chains come in a variety of widths, sprockets come in matched widths for use with specific chains.

 

If you use a #530 chain, use sprockets designed to work with a #530 chain.

 

It is differentiate by a number of simple criteria: width, length, and roller-support lubrication design.

Standard widths are 520 and 530.

Standard lengths are counted by the number of links in the chain -- 110/112/114/116/118/120 are standard link counts, and you can obtain chains up to 140 links from most manufacturers.

 

Efficient SPROCKET RATIO

 

There are only two basic equations for sprocket math:

(1)calculating the sprocket drive ratio.

(2)calculating the percentage change in sprocket ratios.

 

Calculating the sprocket drive ratio:

 

(Rear tooth count) / (front tooth count) = drive ratio

 

Example 1:

Bike ships stock with 47 tooth rear sprocket, 15 tooth front sprocket.

47 / 15 = 3.13333

So 3.13333 is the stock sprocket ratio.

 

Example 2:

You buy a 50 tooth rear sprocket and a 15 tooth front sprocket for the above bike.

50 / 15 = 3.33333

So 3.33333 is the new sprocket ratio.

åƒé‡‘难买早知é“.......

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Calculating the percentage change in sprocket ratios:

 

((new ratio / old Ratio) - 1) * 100 = change as a percentage.

NOTE: Positive percentages indicate higher gearing ratios, negative numbers mean lower gearing ratios

 

Example (using the numbers from the first set of equations):

Motorcycle had a 3.1333 sprocket ratio,

cycle will now have a 3.3333 sprocket ratio

 

((3.3333 / 3.1333) - 1) * 100) =

((1.0638) - 1) * 100) =

(.0638) * 100) = 6.38% change

 

 

Effect On Altering The Sprocket Ratio

 

 

1) The Percentage change is the increase or decrease in available torque compared to stock. It is also the percentage that your RPM's will increase/decrease for any given steady speed (i.e. - if stock is 5000 RPM at 100Km/h, a 10% change will make the RPMs 5500 at 100km/h. Additionally, if your bike reads the speed off the front sprocket, your speedo will be off by this amount as well.

 

2) By altering the sprocket ratios to a positive percentage change, you are trading some effective top-end HP for effective low-end torque. Torque primarily affects acceleration between 0 - 100km/h, while effective HP affects primarily speeds above 100 (especially top speed), and the ability to counteract wind resistance. If your bike can reach speeds above 160 km/h, expect a 12% - 15% change to cut off your top speed by certain %, because that HP you've traded is critical to overcoming the wind resistance at high speeds. Also expect seriously degraded fuel-mileage as a result of the trade-off.

 

3) By altering the sprocket ratios to a negative percentage change, you are trading some effective torque for increased effective HP, but this is likely to only alter your mileage at steady cruising speeds (constant NS highway riding) , not increase your top speed, as the actual total HP for the bike has not increased.

The primary reason for going with a negative percentage change is to reduce the RPM's required to cruise at whatever standard cruising speed you ride at if you do a lot of long-haul touring or commuting (e.g. - getting you out of a zone of vibration if you happen to normally cruise right at the same RPM that the bike vibrates the most).

 

4) Large percentage (more than 8% or so) changes in either direction (from stock) can produce undesirable results.

- Large positive percentage changes can cut your top speed significantly, reduce your effective traction under high throttle applications, and may cause the front end to become light or wheelie in response to the increase in torque.

- Large negative percentage changes can actually increase your gas mileage if you are not cruising steady (as you try to compensate for sluggish performance by giving it more gas during acceleration), and will reduce your rate of acceleration (including out of a dangerous situations).

 

5) Changes under 3% from the current ratio are not likely to be noticed by the rider.

 

6) Whenever feasible to obtain a specific ratio, avoid using a smaller than stock front sprocket. The smaller sprocket requires the links of the chain to turn a tighter radius, which increases friction and decreases the life expectancy of the chain (by decreasing the life-expectancy of the o-ring seals of the chain).

 

7) Adding sprockets with additional teeth will require a chain with a higher link count to compensate for the longer path the chain now needs to take. Using sprockets with fewer teeth will require a chain with less links to cover the same adjustment range.

 

8) Unless you very recently replaced your chain, always replace chains when replacing sprockets (and visa-versa). The two surfaces are designed to mate and wear together (the sprocket-tooth/chain-roller interface) and use of a new sprocket with a worn chain can quickly ruin the sprocket... similarly, use of a worn sprocket with a new chain will quickly ruin the chain.

 

 

Maintainence of Sprocket and Chain coming up next :smile:

 

Attachment are a copy of Sprocket Ratio Chart for easy conversion.

RatioTable.zip

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Hi. Thx Metalfyre for the comprehensive guide on checking 2nd hand bike. Thing is may i know the procedure for the paperwork once after "Yes this is the bike i wanna get". lol paiseh i noob + suck at paper...

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If it's a deal done at a shop, you simply need to bring your license and identity card along with you. Almost always, the shop will settle the works for you.

 

However, if you're purchasing a bike from a private seller, you'll first need to purchase insurance for the bike under your own name. Simply waltz into any of the outlets (eg NTUC's @ Bras Basah) or call to get a quotation. After which, you'll have to proceed down to LTA @ Sin Min to get the vehicle ownership transfer done. You'll again need your identity card as well as your certificate of insurance that you have just purchased. If the seller is unable to make it, you can procure the form online at the one-motoring website and ask him to sign it first. You'll also require his identity card as well.

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Good tips on pumping petrol to give you some extra $mileages.

 

Gas (Petrol)

 

Someone who has been in petroleum pipeline business for about 31 years

and is currently working for the Kinder-Morgan Pipeline in San Jose, CA

wrote the following information:

 

We deliver about 4 million gallons in a 24-hour period from the pipe

line; one day it's diesel, the next day it's jet fuel and gasoline. We

have 34 storage tanks here with a total capacity of 16,800,000 gallons.

Here are some tricks to help you get your money's worth.

 

1. Fill up your car or truck in the morning when the temperature is

still cool. Remember that all service stations have their storage tanks

buried below ground; and the colder the ground, the denser the gasoline.

When it gets warmer gasoline expands, so if you're filling up in the

afternoon or in the evening, what should be a gallon is not exactly a

gallon. In the petroleum business, the specific gravity and temperature

of the fuel (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, ethanol and other petroleum

products) are significant. Every truckload that we load is

temperature-compensated so that the indicated gallonage is actually the

amount pumped. A one-degree rise in temperature is a big deal for

businesses, but service stations don't have temperature compensation at

their pumps.

 

2. If a tanker truck is filling the station's tank at the time you want

to buy gas, do not fill up; most likely dirt and sludge in the tank is

being stirred up when gas is being delivered, and you might be

transferring that dirt from the bottom of their tank into your car's

tank.

 

3. Fill up when your gas tank is half-full (or half-empty), because the

more gas you have in your tank the less air there is and gasoline

evaporates rapidly, especially when it's warm. (Gasoline storage tanks

have an internal floating 'roof' membrane to act as a barrier between

the gas and the atmosphere, thereby minimizing evaporation.)

 

4. If you look at the trigger you'll see that it has three delivery

settings: slow, medium and high. When you're filling up do not squeeze

the trigger of the nozzle to the high setting.

You should be pumping at the slow setting, thereby minimizing vapors

created while you are pumping. Hoses at the pump are corrugated; the

corrugations act as a return path for vapor recovery from gas that

already has been metered. If you are pumping at the high setting, the

agitated gasoline contains more vapor, which is being sucked back into

the underground tank, so you're getting less gas for your money.

 

Hope this will help ease your 'pain at the pump' !

Mar'06~Aug'08: Phantom TA200

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thanks arjen and metal,

 

one more question, once metalfyre said that stop the bike by key, not using off-switch (kill-switch, near right hand-grip), coz kill-switch will harm engine parts.

i used to stop the bike by kill-switch, but now trying to off the engine by key.

can u guys add more info about this to newbie guide ?

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Information on Octane Ratings

 

Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and enhanced with aromatic hydrocarbons toluene, benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines.

 

An important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to the abnormal combustion phenomenon known as detonation (also known as knocking, pinging, spark knock, and other names). A higher-octane fuels allow for a higher compression ratio - this means less space in a cylinder on its combustion stroke, hence a higher cylinder temperature which improves efficiency according to Carnot's theorem, along with fewer wasted hydrocarbons (therefore less pollution and wasted energy), bringing higher power levels coupled with less pollution overall because of the greater efficiency.

 

Different countries have some variation in what RON (Research Octane Number) is standard for gasoline, or petrol. In the UK, ordinary regular unleaded petrol is 91 RON (not commonly available), premium unleaded petrol is always 95 RON, and super unleaded is usually 97-98 RON. However both Shell and BP produce fuel at 102 RON for cars with hi-performance engines, and the supermarket chain Tesco began in 2006 to sell super unleaded petrol rated at 99 RON. In the US, octane ratings in fuels can vary between 86-87 AKI (91-92 RON) for regular, through 89-90 (94-95) for mid-grade (European Premium), up to 90-94 (RON 95-99) for premium unleaded or E10 (Super in Europe)

 

Contrary to widespread belief, the octane rating doesn't indicate how much power the fuel delivers; all grades of gasoline contain roughly the same amount of heat energy. Rather, a higher octane rating means the fuel is less likely to cause your engine to knock or ping. Knock, also known as detonation, occurs when part of the fuel-air mixture in one or more of your car's cylinders ignites spontaneously due to compression, independent of the combustion initiated by the spark plug. (The ideal gas law tells us that a gas heats up when compressed.) Instead of a controlled burn, you get what amounts to an explosion--not a good thing for your engine. To avoid this, high-octane gas is formulated to burn slower than regular, making it less likely to ignite without benefit of spark.

 

The majority of cars are designed to run on regular gas, and that's what the manuals tell the owners to use. Higher-performance cars often require midgrade or premium gas because their engines are designed for higher compression (higher compression = more power), and regular gas may cause knock. If your car needs high-octane gas, the manual will say so.

 

Using high-octane gas in a car designed for regular accomplishes little except more rapid combustion of your money. Some refuse to believe this, claiming, for example, that premium gives the family Toyota better mileage or more power. These people are in dreamland. Others say premium is purer or contains detergents that will cleanse your engine of uncouth deposits. Likewise misguided thinking--government regulations require detergents in all grades of gasoline. Some automotive types claim that using premium in a car designed for regular will make the engine dirtier--something about deposits on the back side of the intake valves. Slower-burning high-octane gas produces less power when used in ordinary cars. Believe what you like; the point is, don't assume "premium" means "better."

Mar'06~Aug'08: Phantom TA200

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  • 1 month later...

guys, this is one of our most informative reference threads. Lets try to keep it clean.

Kindly refrain from chatting here. There are plenty of other threads for you to TCSS.

BlackDawn aka kiamh

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  • 6 months later...
Hi. Anyone can help with this? i don wan my bike to be damage. i always use the kill-switch.

 

I a bit lazy to explain. Suffice to say that a mechanic friend told me not to use the EMERGENCY kill switch because it is only for use in EMERGENCIES and not to regularly switch off your bike. Damage suffered is akin to throwing clutch and letting your bike die. U off using key, your engine can cycle down rather than come to an abrupt halt from whatever your idling speed might be. So if you don't want your bike to be damaged, use your key to off the bike.

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Kill switch or ignition is the same. Both cut electrical power to the spark plug so as to stop the engine. Its got nothing to do with being in the same neighbourhood of throwing clutch. Either way the engine cycles to a natural stop rather than being forced to stop.

 

I tend to prefer using the kill switch to stop my engine as its also less risky on the electrics with the rectifier and all stopped first before turning off the ignition that disconnects the battery.

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Ultimately its up to you to believe or not. I very lazy to explain further. If you think it's the same, go on ahead and go on using your kill switch. On my part, I'll just go on trusting my mechanic friend.

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Kill switch or ignition is the same. Both cut electrical power to the spark plug so as to stop the engine. Its got nothing to do with being in the same neighbourhood of throwing clutch. Either way the engine cycles to a natural stop rather than being forced to stop.

 

I tend to prefer using the kill switch to stop my engine as its also less risky on the electrics with the rectifier and all stopped first before turning off the ignition that disconnects the battery.

 

Ultimately its up to you to believe or not. I very lazy to explain further. If you think it's the same, go on ahead and go on using your kill switch. On my part, I'll just go on trusting my mechanic friend.

 

dudes, I'm wondering :confused:

Cars/Atvs/JetSkis and many vehicles, they don't have this kill switch(some jetskis do; attached to wrist) So whats the difference with theirs to ours?

 

SNapEl: does it mean cars will have the problem that you mentioned? :confused:

 

Metalfyre: won't doubt your knowledge but I found this is intriguing since you brought it up long ago. Hope someone *hinting kmax* will dig up some info as supplement to our Singaporean brains :thumb:

 

smiles to all :]

jB

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SNapEl: does it mean cars will have the problem that you mentioned? :confused:

 

Modern cars now have PCBs, Chips and ECUs in between the driver controls and the rest of the whole car... I assume that the turning of the key to start the engine is not directly connected to the starter motor but rather signals the ECU that the ignition key is turned and to start the start/stop engine sequence.

 

Of course i only meant that it lowers the risk of electrical damage due to surges.

 

Then again i'm no expert nor mechanic, so this is only based on my own thinking and unprofessional reasoning.

 

If others are too lazy to provide reasons otherwise and I can't google up relevant cons of using the kill switch often, then i guess i dun have a reason to think otherwise.

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The reason I'm demurring from discussing this is because my mechanic friend did not explain it to me in full detail, and thus I am forced to theorize as to why using the kill switch induces the same damage as slipping your clutch. The lazy bit stems from having to try and dig out what I thought of when all that's swimming in my head now are topics with regards to my upcoming exams >_

 

So in that light, my theorizing is similiar to SNapEl's 'unprofessional reasoning'. But something to consider is this: if modern cars are insulated from the surging problem, what about older cars? Say, the older Porshe 911 that's still around, 10+ year old Sunnys and Civics etc. Years and years of attrition through switching off the engine using the ignition should have made such surges commonplace by now, but I haven't heard of it...yet. Maybe you'd like to enlighten regarding this?

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Electrical relays and capacitors are widely available 10+ years ago and are also used to protect against surges then. I hope vehicle engineers have some sense to put them in the car when designing their electrical circuits. Then again surges happening may or may not be possible in the starting and stopping of an engine. I do not know for sure. I'm only saying that I am lowering risks as i deduce that it can be possible. If the risks are already 0 den i guess it doesn't apply but that is not the greatest factor in me using the kill switch to stop my engine. Its just for convenience and preference sake.

 

When you say inducing the same damage as the slippage of clutch i assume you mean that the kill switch forces the engine to halt just as how it happens when a stationary bike has its clutch released. In that case with the kill switch on the starter motor should not be able to turn the engine, just like when the bike is left in gear 1. However that is not the case. Moreover the kill switch is only an electrical switch, no hydraulics nor tension cable to release the clutch while overwriting the clutch lever or induce a braking effect on the engine. Also imagine this, you are riding @ 70km/h and the kill switch is flipped on. In your case the engine will cause higher than normal engine braking due to both the clutch still being engaged to the engine and another braking effect to the engine due to the some device the kill switch activates. Won't that run a significant risk of rear wheel locking and skidding?

 

I don't find it logical that the kill swtich should cause the engine to halt immediately due to it activating a device to cause a braking effect other than to cut power to the spark plug in order to stop igniting fuel and thus killing a running engine.

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  • 9 months later...

upon buying a 2nd hand bike from private owner, is there any doc which i will keep other then insurance?

 

doc stating bike name , bike plate number ect?

JOSHUA

class2B -26/2/09

class 2A -27/7/10

class 3 - 6/1/11

class 2 - 30/8/12

 

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